Author: Gary Valentine

Fiber-Optic Right of Way Appraisals

fiber-optic right-of-way appraisalsFiber-optics are lines of thin glass that can send digital information by transmitting light signals. Thousands optic fibers are arranged in bundles and optical cables, protected by an outer covering, called a jacket. Optical fibers can be single-mode fibers that transmit infrared laser light. Or they contain multi-mode fibers that transmit infrared light from light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Optical fibers often have the diameter of a single human hair.

Fiber optics were first discovered in 1970. Their discovery has revolutionized the Fiber-optic communication industry. Today, more than 80% of the world’s long-distance traffic is secured over optical fiber cables. The increase in computer use means demand remains strong.

 Fiber-Optic Right of Way Appraisals

Fiber-optical cable can be buried underground. Or cable can be hung from poles above ground like electrical wires. When they are buried, the rule of thumb is that they be placed three to four feet deep. Fiber-optic cables typically encumber an area non-exclusively between three to ten feet wide. Protective cables are designed for approximately a 40-year lifetime. Glass fiber inside the cable is good for millennia. That is, as long as the coatings and plastics used in the cable remain intact.

The biggest failure is damage from backhoes and/or digging up cables. What is the downside to placing cables underground? According to experts, the installation cost to place fiber optic conduits underground is twice as much as the cost to hang a fiber-optic cable from poles. However, more conduits can be placed underground for a little additional cost per conduit. This means that several times more fiber can be installed simultaneously underground than on poles.

 

Fiber-Optic Right of Way Appraisal Methods

How are fiber-optic appraisals conducted? Because the Fiber optic cable industry has failed to make comparable sales and rental data available for fiber-optic lines. This means there can be a problem. Appraisers are left to use three alternative approaches of value. They are: The Market Approach, Across the Fence, and Survey Methods of appraisal.

fiber-optic appraisal
fiber optic valuations can be tricky

The Survey Method for Fiber-Optic Appraisals

The Survey Method is the first method. It is good to use if you can get ahold of the right information. Because in this approach, information from the right of way owners who have allowed leases or easements for fiber-optic lines on their corridors is obtained. Then the information gets analyzed. So, without the proper documentation, it is not an easy method to use.  Further information from users who have fiber optic lines throughout various corridors can help as well. Discussions may include those in the private and public sectors.

The Across the Fence Method for Fiber-Optic Appraisals

The across the Fence method is the second method. Because the value of the corridor is similar to the value of adjacent properties. It was developed in the early days of the industry’s growth. Back then,  a window of opportunity existed to beat out the competition and secure laying thousands of miles of fiber optics cables. These agreements were closed in a very short period of time.

A good example of this is when negotiators for Southern Pacific Transportation Company needed to know the value of real estate fiber-optic lines. These were lines that encumbered their corridors, so a rough Across the Fence (ATF) value was arrived at. Eventually, an across the Board value for fiber optic lines was agreed upon. It equaled $10,000 an acre for rural areas and $25,000 an acre for urban areas. These numbers were used for nearly two decades (1980s-1990s). Another acceptable unit of comparison for the Across the Board approach is the price per mile.

florida real estate appraiser

 

The Market Approach for Fiber-Optic Appraisals

The final approach that is used is the Market Approach.  This third approach is recognized as the most reliable method for appraising real property for fiber optic lines. And, this approach requires obtaining comparable leases and easements of other fiber-optic lines. Leases are then adjusted for necessary market items.

These may include the following. Terms and conditions of an agreement, changing market conditions, and location differences. Plus, differences of physical characteristics between the comparable and subject property.

Final Thoughts on Fiber-Optic Right of Way Appraisals

The telecommunications industry continues to grow at a rapid pace. However, due to a blockage of free-flowing information because of confidential agreements, the appraisal of fiber-optic lines continues to vary. For this reason, there needs to be a level of uniformity in the units and elements of comparison in appraising real property for fiber optic lines.

But until then, the marketplace will continue to accept a host of methodologies and approaches of value. So, for this reason, fiber-optic right of way appraisals can be tricky!

Looking for an experienced fiber-optics appraiser? Please contact Gary Valentine, Lic# RZ4132. Ph 407-721-5373

Email: gsv@valentineappraisal.com

Appraisal Review

In virtually every trade and profession, certain persons review, criticize, critique, inspect, examine, cross-check, retest, question, judge, or comment on the work of others.  The essence of appraisal review is to investigate, analyze, and verify the logic, procedures, and methodologies used in appraisal reports to insure that the preparation is competent and thorough, and results in a reasonable estimate, which instills confidence in the reliability of the appraisal report for the client. 

There are various types of appraisal reviews:

A technical review is performed by an appraiser in accordance with Standard 3 of USPAP. 

An administrative review is recognized as a compliance review, usually performed by a client or user and may not necessarily be performed by an appraiser, nor is it bound by Standard 3 of USPAP.  It may just be a preliminary review as part of a technical review process later on. 

The reviewer may suggest several courses of action.  For example:

  •  Additional market data be obtained
  •  Specific pages be corrected for compliance
  •  Interviews be scheduled with people familiar with the property
  • Opinions be obtained from experts in related disciplines

When a field review is needed, the review appraiser conducts a field inspection.  Suggested criteria to measure reviewer performance include:

  • Technical ability
  • Timing
  • Quality of review
  • Conclusion

The appraisal review includes various processes:

  • Real estate to be appraised
  • Property rights involved
  • Use of the appraisal
  • Definition of value
  • Date of value estimate
  • Scope of the appraisal
  • Other limiting conditions

Furthermore, general data consists of information on social, economic, governmental, and environmental factors that affect value.  Also, highest and best use is concluded, taking into consideration what is legally permissible, physically possible, and financially feasible.  Then the three traditional approaches of value are analyzed for reasonableness and accuracy. 

The common reporting deficiencies in an appraisal report include:

  • Poorly written report which is not convincing to the client or reviewer
  • Lacks organization that limits comprehension by the reader
  • Lacks a favorable impression of the appraiser
  • Avoids the main issues and/or inconsistencies within the report
  • Lack of analysis
  • Lack of guidance throughout the report
  • Discrepancies between data analyses, which erodes confidence in its conclusions
  • Reasoning is not straightforward and reasonable
  • Incomplete information of a sale or comp
  • Lack of reconciliation of different value

Finally, the reviewer’s role is to determine if an appraisal report (1) meets acceptable standards in the criteria of the client and users of the report; (2) conforms to the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice (USPAP); (3) complies with governmental regulatory requirements; and (4) concludes with a reasonable and reliable market value estimate. 

The client generally wants the appraisals to:

  • Identify market trends
  • Clearly describe the property
  • Explain apparent legal obligations that go with the land, including    covenants, conditions, restrictions, easements, and zoning
  • Provide detailed sales, rental, and investment information regarding similar properties in the same market
  • Outline both property and market risk parameters
  • Provide valuable market trend information
  • Notify the client of any potential environmental hazards
  • Serve as a valuable management tool for portfolio planning and advising third-party clients

 

 

Transportation Corridors

A transportation corridor is a long, narrow strip of property that includes surface, subsurface, and air rights. It often connects two or more areas restricted to surface, subsurface, and air rights, for the deportation of goods and passengers. 

Some examples of transportation corridors are: railroad and mass transit lines, public and private roads, pipelines, including oil, gas, water, and sewer lines, fiber optics, pedestrians pathways, aqueducts and canals, television cables, and electrical transmission lines. 

How to Appraise a Transportation Corridor

There are different methods that can be used when appraising a transportation corridor, including Replacement Cost New Less Depreciation (RCNLD), Corridor Value (CV), Sales Comparison Approach, Across the Fence Value (ATF), Net Liquidation Value (NLV), and Going Concern Value (GCV). [1]

Replacement Cost New Less Depreciation (RCNLD) is based on the principle of substitution and is more commonly referred to as the “cost of assemblage.”  It includes the cost of the part taken, appraisal costs, negations costs, title costs, grading costs, project management costs, and the acquisition and demolition of buildings.  According to Dolman and Seymour, this cost can range from two to six times the Across the Fence (ATF) value.  The Court of Appeals in People v. Southern Pacific Transportation Company (1978) held that “the cost of reproduction is an acceptable approach to a determination of just compensation.”

When several similar commensurate commodities, goods or services are available, the one with the lowest price attracts the greatest demand and the widest distribution.   Corridor Value (CV) is determined by multiplying the ATF value and the enhancement factor.  The enhancement factor is arrived at by dividing the sales price of a corridor by its ATF value.

Sales Comparison Approach is applicable when there are several sales or comparables that have sold in the subject’s market area.  This approach is seldom used since there are relatively few transactions of transportation corridors that sell in the same market area.

The underlying assumption in the Across the Fence (ATF) method is that land in the transportation corridor is equal to the value of adjoining lands.  When using this method, the property is divided down the centerline and each half is joined to the adjacent parcel along with the adjacent property’s highest and best use and unit value.  The ATF is the sales comparison approach modified to the degree that shape, size, topography, and access are disregarded.  The State Board of Equalization, railroad companies, utility companies and public agencies use this method more than others when assessing value of operating and non-operating property, ground rent, and public and private streets.

The Net Liquidation Value (NLV) is the present value of the net amount the owner will realize if the corridor is sold piecemeal over a reasonable time period.  Net proceeds are determined after administrative, marketing, real estate taxes, and cleanup costs are deducted from the gross revenues. 

The Going Concern Value (GCV) is the expected future profits discounted to today’s value at a rate reflecting the quantity, quality, and durability of the income.

Appraising transportation corridors is a challenging endeavor, but can be accomplished by using one or more of the methods outlined above.

Valentine Appraisal and Associates Has Successfully Completed Several Transportation Corridor assignments:

  • Lower Franklin Reservoir Property in City of Los Angeles, CA
  • An Existing Pipeline Traverse Crossing at the BNSF Transportation Corridor in Hesperia, CA
  • 1.9 Mile 50-foot wide Right of Way Corridor in Riverside County, CA
  • 80.48 Mile Transportation Corridor in Siskiyou and Shasta Counties, CA

Palmdale Commercial Building Appraisals

Avigation Easements

Pipeline Easements

Visit Valentine Appraisal and Associates

 [1] Valentine, Gary S. “Appraising a Transportation Corridor.”  Right of Way Nov-Dec. 1998: 6-10.

Our Service Area Cities
Real Estate Appraiser, and Commercial Appraisal / Appraiser Coverage Areas: 93510 Agoura 91301 Agua Dulce, Saugus
91350 Airport Worldway; 90009 Alhambra 91801, 91803 Altadena 91001 Arcadia 91006 91007 ARCO Towers 90071 Arleta
91331 Artesia 90680 Athens 90044 Atwater Village 90039 Avalon 90704 Azusa 91702 Baldwin Hills 90008 Baldwin Park
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90077, 90210 Beverly Hills 90210 – 90212 Biola Univ. (La Mirada) 90639 Boyle Heights 90033 Bradbury 91010 Brentwood
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(Carson) 90747 Cal State Long Beach (Long Beach) 90840 Cal State Northridge 91330 Cal Tech (Pasadena) 91125 – 91126
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91731 – 91732 El Segundo 9024 El Sereno 90032 Elizabeth Lake 93532 Encino 91316 / 91436 Federal Bldg (Lawndale)
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91504 Granada Hills 91344 Griffith Park 90027 Hacienda Heights (La Puente) 91745 Hancock Park 90004 / 90020 Harbor
City 90710 Hawaiian Gardens 90716 Hawthorne (Holly Park) 90250 Hermosa Beach 90254 Hi Vista 93535 Hidden Hills
91302 Highland Park 90042 Hollywood 90028 / 90038 / 90068 Huntington Park 90255 Hyde Park 90043 Industry, 91744 /
91746 / 91789 Inglewood 90301 – 90303, 90305 Irwindale 91706 Jefferson Park 90018 Juniper Hills 93543 Koreatown
90005 La Canada-Flintridge 91011 La Crescenta (Glendale) 91214 La Habra Heights 90631 La Mirada 90638La Mirada
(Biola Univ.) 90639 La Puente 91744/91746 Hacienda Heights) 91745 (Rowland Heights) 91748 La Verne 91750 Ladera
Heights 90056 Lake Hughes 93532 Lake Los Angeles 93550 / 93591 Lake View Terrace 91342 Lakewood 90712 – 90713 /
90715 Lancaster 93534 – 93536 90260 Lawndale (Federal Bldg) 90261 LAX Area 90045 Leimert Par 90008 Lennox 90304
Littlerock 93543 Llano 93544 Lomita 90717 Long Beach 90802 – 90808, 90813 – 90815, 90822(Cal State Long Beach)
90840 (McDonnell Douglas) 90846 90805 (World Trade Ctr) 90831 – 90832 AIr Port Worldway 90009 ARCO Towers 90071
Arleta 91331 Atwater Village 90039 Bel Air Estates 90049 / 90077 Beverly Glen 90077 / 90210 Boyle Heights 90033
Brentwood 90049Cal State Northridge 91330 Canoga Park 91303 / 91304 Century City 90067 Chatsworth 91311 Cheviot
Hills 90064 Chinatown 90012 Civic Center 90012 Country Club Park 90019 Crenshaw 90008 Cypress Park 90065 Downtown
90013 – 90015 / 90017 / 90021 / 90029 Eagle Rock 90041 East 90023 Echo Park 90026El Sereno 90032 Encino 91316 /
91436 Glassell Park 90065 Granada Hills 91344 Griffith Park 90027 Hancock Park 90004 / 90020 Harbor City 90710
Highland Park 90042 Hollywood 90028 / 90038 / 90068 Hyde Park ;90043 Jefferson Prk 90018 (Koreatown) 90005 (Ladera
Heights) 90056 Lake View Terrace 91342(LAX Area) 90045 (Leimert Park) 90008(Los Feliz) 90027 (Mar Vista) 90066 Mid
City) 90019 (Mission Hills) 91345 (Montecito Heights) 90031 (Mount Olympus) 90046 (Mt. Washington) 90065 (North
Hills) 91343 North Hollywood 91601 – 91602 / 91604 – 91607 Northridge 91324-91325 Pacific Highlands 90272 Pacific
Palisades 90272 Pacoima 91331 (Palms) 90034 Panorama City 91402 (Park La Brea) 90036 (Pico Heights) 90006 Playa del
Rey) 90293 (Porter Ranch) 91326 (Rancho Park) 90064 Reseda 91335 San Pedro 90731-90732 (Sawtelle) 90022 (Shadow
Hills) 91040 Sherman Oaks 91403 / 91423 (Silverlake) 90026 (South Central) 90001 / 90003 /90007 / 90011 / 90037 /
90047 / 90061 – 90062 (Studio City) 91604 Sun Valley 91352 (Sunland) 91040 (Sylmar) 91342 (Tarzana) 91356 (Terminal
Island) 90731 (Toluca Lake) 91602 (Tujunga) 91042 (USC) 90089 (Valley Village) 91607 Van Nuys) 91401- 91403 / 91405
– 91406 / 91411 / 91423 (Venice) 90291 (Watts) 90002/90059 (West Adams) 90016 (West Beverly) 90048 (West Fairfax)
90035 West Hills) 91307 (West Los Angeles) 90025 (Westchester) 90045 (Westlake) 90057 Westwood 90024 Wilmington
90744 (Wilshire Blvd) 90010 (Winnetka) 91306(Woodland Hills) 91364 / 91367 Los Feliz 90027 Los Nietos 90606 Lynwood
90262 Malibu 90265 Manhattan Beach 90266 Mar Vista 90066 Marina del Rey 90292 Maywood 90270 McDonnell Douglas 90846
Mid City 90019 Mission Hills 91345 Monrovia 91016 Montebello 90640 Montecito Heights 90031 Monterey Hill 90032
Monterey Park 91754-91756 Montrose 91020 Mount Olympus 90046 Mount Wilson 91023 Mt. Washington 90065 Newhall (Santa
Clarita) 91321 North Hills 91343North Hollywood 91601 – 91602 / 91604 – 91607 90805 Northridge 91324 – 91325 Cal
State Univ. 91330 Norwalk 90650 Oak Park 91301 Pacific Highlands 9027290272 Pacoima 91331Palmdale 93550 – 93552 /
93591 Palms Palos Verdes Estates 90274 Panorama City 91402 Paramount 90723 Park La Brea 90036 Pasadena 91101 /
91103 – 91107 (Cal Tech) 91125 – 91126 Pearblossom 93553 Phillips Ranch 91766 Pico Heights 90006 Pico Rivera 90660
Playa del Rey 90293Playa Vista 90094 Pomona 91766-91768 Porter Ranch 91326 Quartz Hill 93536 Rancho Dominguez 90220
Rancho Palos Verdes 90275 / 90717 / 90732 Rancho Park 90064 Redondo Beach 90277 – 90278 Reseda 91335 Rolling Hills
90274 Rolling Hills Estates 90274 Rosemead 91770 Rosewood 90222 Rowland Heights (La Puente) 91748 San Dimas 91773
San Fernando 91340 San Gabriel 91775 – 91776 San Marino 91108 San Pedro (0731 – 90733 Santa Clarita (Canyon
Country) 91351(Newhall) 91321 Valencia 91354 – 91355

 

 


Avigation Easement

avigation-01-copyAn easement is the right a property owner grants to another for a specific use of their property. This right is acquired through purchase or condemnation. An avigation easement is the right a public or private agency acquires to use the airspace above a specific height for the flight of aircraft.

What is an Avigation Easement?

According to Baker v. Burbank-Glendale-Pasadena Airport Authority (1990) case, an “avigation easement” is required “when the noise, vibration, fumes, fuel particles and inconvenience caused by low-flying aircraft interfere with the use and enjoyment of the underlying property…”

What is the purpose of an Avigation Easement?

An airport might like to acquire an avigation easement over neighboring properties to prevent construction of buildings and towers, planting of trees, installation of lighting, or any other development that might interfere with takeoff and landing of aircraft. An Avigation Easement also protects against liability of any other nuisance such as noise, fumes, and vibration that may interfere with the use and enjoyment of the property.

Height restrictions with an Avigation Easement

In City of Los Angeles v. Japan Air Lines Co., LTD. (1974), the court stated that federal regulations require jets and other large aircraft to be operated at an altitude of at least 1500 feet above terrian, yet currently the County of Orange in Southern California has no height restriction.

Noise Levels with an Avigation Easement

In Baker v. Burbank-Glendale-Pasadena Airport Authority (1990) it was determined that noise levels should not exceed 65 decibels.

How to Obtain an Avigation Easement

Although the most common form of obtaining an avigation easement is through purchase or condemnation, avigation easements can be acquired by prescription as well, meaning the rights to the air space can be obtained for free if the air space has been used without complaint from adjacent land owners for at least 5 years in California (15 in Connecticut and 10 in the state of Washington).

Other Restrictions for an Avigation Easement

When an avigation easement is acquired, there are certain restrictions that can be put into place such as in Burbank (City of Burbank v. Lockheed Air Terminal, Inc.) a local ordinance prohibits takeoffs between 11 p.m. and 7 a.m.

Appraising an Avigation Easement

When appraising an avigation easement, compensation is paid to the land owner for rights to the air space. Compensation for an Avigation Easement is based on the fair market value of the property “before” the easement and “after” the avigation easement. The difference between the “before” and “after” value of the property is the value of the avigation easement.

Valentine Appraisal and Associates has appraised more than 10 avigation easements in recent years. Please feel free to contact us at (661) 288-0198 as we are experts in avigation easements.

Real Estate Appraiser, and Commercial Appraisal / Appraiser Coverage Areas: 93510 Agoura 91301 Agua Dulce, Saugus 91350 Airport Worldway; 90009 Alhambra 91801, 91803 Altadena 91001 Arcadia 91006 91007 ARCO Towers 90071 Arleta 91331 Artesia 90680 Athens 90044 Atwater Village 90039 Avalon 90704 Azusa 91702 Baldwin Hills 90008 Baldwin Park 91706 Bassett 91746 Bel Air Estates 90049. 90077 Bell 90201 Bell Gardens 90201 Bellflower 90706 Beverly Glen ; 90077, 90210 Beverly Hills 90210 – 90212 Biola Univ. (La Mirada) 90639 Boyle Heights 90033 Bradbury 91010 Brentwood 90049 91501 – 91502 / 91506 / 91523 (Glenoaks) 91504 Burbank (Woodbury Univ.) 91510 Cal State Dominguez Hills (Carson) 90747 Cal State Long Beach (Long Beach) 90840 Cal State Northridge 91330 Cal Tech (Pasadena) 91125 – 91126 Calabasas 91302/91372 Canoga Park 91303 – 91304 Canyon Country (Santa Clarita) 91351 Carson 90745 – 90746 Carson (CS Univ. Dominguez Hills) 90747 Carson/ Long Beach 90810Castaic 91310 / 91384 Castellemare 90272 Century City 90067 Cerritos 90701 Chatsworth 91311 Cheviot Hills 90064 Chinatown 90012 City Terrace 90063 Civic Center 90012 Claremont 91711 Commerce, 90040 Compton 90220 – 90222 Country Club Park 90019 Covina 91722 – 91724 Crenshaw 90008Cudahy 90201 Culver City 90230 / 90232 Cypress Park 90065 Diamond Bar 91765 / 91789 Dominguez Hills, Cal State (Carson) 90747 Downey 90240 – 90242 Downtown Los Angeles ;90013 – 90015 / 90017 / 90021 / 9002 Eagle Rock ;9004East Los Angeles 90022 East Los Angeles 90023 East Rancho Dominguez 90221 Echo Park ;900 Edwards AFB 93523 El Monte 91731 – 91732 El Segundo 9024 El Sereno 90032 Elizabeth Lake 93532 Encino 91316 / 91436 Federal Bldg (Lawndale) 90261 Firestone Boy Scout Res. 92621 Florence 90001 Gardena 90247 – 90249 Glassell Park 90065 Glendale 91201 – 91208 (La Crescenta) 91214 Glendale (Tropico) 91204 – (Verdugo City) 91046 Glendora 91740 – 91741Glenoaks (Burbank) 91504 Granada Hills 91344 Griffith Park 90027 Hacienda Heights (La Puente) 91745 Hancock Park 90004 / 90020 Harbor City 90710 Hawaiian Gardens 90716 Hawthorne (Holly Park) 90250 Hermosa Beach 90254 Hi Vista 93535 Hidden Hills 91302 Highland Park 90042 Hollywood 90028 / 90038 / 90068 Huntington Park 90255 Hyde Park 90043 Industry, 91744 / 91746 / 91789 Inglewood 90301 – 90303, 90305 Irwindale 91706 Jefferson Park 90018 Juniper Hills 93543 Koreatown 90005 La Canada-Flintridge 91011 La Crescenta (Glendale) 91214 La Habra Heights 90631 La Mirada 90638La Mirada (Biola Univ.) 90639 La Puente 91744/91746 Hacienda Heights) 91745 (Rowland Heights) 91748 La Verne 91750 Ladera Heights 90056 Lake Hughes 93532 Lake Los Angeles 93550 / 93591 Lake View Terrace 91342 Lakewood 90712 – 90713 / 90715 Lancaster 93534 – 93536 90260 Lawndale (Federal Bldg) 90261 LAX Area 90045 Leimert Par 90008 Lennox 90304 Littlerock 93543 Llano 93544 Lomita 90717 Long Beach 90802 – 90808, 90813 – 90815, 90822(Cal State Long Beach) 90840 (McDonnell Douglas) 90846 90805 (World Trade Ctr) 90831 – 90832 AIr Port Worldway 90009 ARCO Towers 90071 Arleta 91331 Atwater Village 90039 Bel Air Estates 90049 / 90077 Beverly Glen 90077 / 90210 Boyle Heights 90033 Brentwood 90049Cal State Northridge 91330 Canoga Park 91303 / 91304 Century City 90067 Chatsworth 91311 Cheviot Hills 90064 Chinatown 90012 Civic Center 90012 Country Club Park 90019 Crenshaw 90008 Cypress Park 90065 Downtown 90013 – 90015 / 90017 / 90021 / 90029 Eagle Rock 90041 East 90023 Echo Park 90026El Sereno 90032 Encino 91316 / 91436 Glassell Park 90065 Granada Hills 91344 Griffith Park 90027 Hancock Park 90004 / 90020 Harbor City 90710 Highland Park 90042 Hollywood 90028 / 90038 / 90068 Hyde Park ;90043 Jefferson Prk 90018 (Koreatown) 90005 (Ladera Heights) 90056 Lake View Terrace 91342(LAX Area) 90045 (Leimert Park) 90008(Los Feliz) 90027 (Mar Vista) 90066 Mid City) 90019 (Mission Hills) 91345 (Montecito Heights) 90031 (Mount Olympus) 90046 (Mt. Washington) 90065 (North Hills) 91343 North Hollywood 91601 – 91602 / 91604 – 91607 Northridge 91324-91325 Pacific Highlands 90272 Pacific Palisades 90272 Pacoima 91331 (Palms) 90034 Panorama City 91402 (Park La Brea) 90036 (Pico Heights) 90006 Playa del Rey) 90293 (Porter Ranch) 91326 (Rancho Park) 90064 Reseda 91335 San Pedro 90731-90732 (Sawtelle) 90022 (Shadow Hills) 91040 Sherman Oaks 91403 / 91423 (Silverlake) 90026 (South Central) 90001 / 90003 /90007 / 90011 / 90037 / 90047 / 90061 – 90062 (Studio City) 91604 Sun Valley 91352 (Sunland) 91040 (Sylmar) 91342 (Tarzana) 91356 (Terminal Island) 90731 (Toluca Lake) 91602 (Tujunga) 91042 (USC) 90089 (Valley Village) 91607 Van Nuys) 91401- 91403 / 91405 – 91406 / 91411 / 91423 (Venice) 90291 (Watts) 90002/90059 (West Adams) 90016 (West Beverly) 90048 (West Fairfax) 90035 West Hills) 91307 (West Los Angeles) 90025 (Westchester) 90045 (Westlake) 90057 Westwood 90024 Wilmington 90744 (Wilshire Blvd) 90010 (Winnetka) 91306(Woodland Hills) 91364 / 91367 Los Feliz 90027 Los Nietos 90606 Lynwood 90262 Malibu 90265 Manhattan Beach 90266 Mar Vista 90066 Marina del Rey 90292 Maywood 90270 McDonnell Douglas 90846 Mid City 90019 Mission Hills 91345 Monrovia 91016 Montebello 90640 Montecito Heights 90031 Monterey Hill 90032 Monterey Park 91754-91756 Montrose 91020 Mount Olympus 90046 Mount Wilson 91023 Mt. Washington 90065 Newhall (Santa Clarita) 91321 North Hills 91343North Hollywood 91601 – 91602 / 91604 – 91607 90805 Northridge 91324 – 91325 Cal State Univ. 91330 Norwalk 90650 Oak Park 91301 Pacific Highlands 9027290272 Pacoima 91331Palmdale 93550 – 93552 / 93591 Palms Palos Verdes Estates 90274 Panorama City 91402 Paramount 90723 Park La Brea 90036 Pasadena 91101 / 91103 – 91107 (Cal Tech) 91125 – 91126 Pearblossom 93553 Phillips Ranch 91766 Pico Heights 90006 Pico Rivera 90660 Playa del Rey 90293Playa Vista 90094 Pomona 91766-91768 Porter Ranch 91326 Quartz Hill 93536 Rancho Dominguez 90220 Rancho Palos Verdes 90275 / 90717 / 90732 Rancho Park 90064 Redondo Beach 90277 – 90278 Reseda 91335 Rolling Hills 90274 Rolling Hills Estates 90274 Rosemead 91770 Rosewood 90222 Rowland Heights (La Puente) 91748 San Dimas 91773 San Fernando 91340 San Gabriel 91775 – 91776 San Marino 91108 San Pedro (0731 – 90733 Santa Clarita (Canyon Country) 91351(Newhall) 91321 Valencia 91354 – 91355

Easements

easement-2-copyAn interest in real property that conveys use, but not ownership, of a portion of an owner’s property.  Access or right-of-way easements may be acquired by private parties or public utilities.  Governments dedicate conservation, open space, and preservation easements.

(Dictionary of Real Estate Appraisal, 4th edition.)

The following are the many types of easements that may encumber real property:

 

• Affirmative Easement • Pipeline Easement
• Ancillary Easement • Pole Line Easement
• Appurtenant Easement • Preservation Easement
• Avigation Easement • Private Way of Necessity
• Clearance Easement • Rail Easement
• Conservation Easement • Reciprocal Easement
• Cross Easement • Right of Drainage
• Discontinuous Easement • Right of Entry
• Drainage Easement • Right of Re-entry
• Drip Easement • Right-of-Way
• Easement Appurtenant • Scenic Easement
• Easement by Prescription • Servient Estate
• Easement in Gross • Sewer Line Easement
• Façade Easement • Sight Line Easement
• Flowage Easement • Slope Easement
• Highway Easement • Solar Easement
• Line of Sight Easement • Subsurface Easement
• Negative Easement • Surface Easement
• Non-Appurtenant Easement • Temporary Easement
• Overhead Easement • Utility Easement
• Permanent Easement • Water Line Easement
• Perpetual Easement

Consulting

consultingThe act of being employed or involved in giving professional advice to the public or to those practicing the profession: a consulting physician; of, pertaining to, or used for consultation: a physician’s consulting room.

(https://dictionary.reference.com/browse/consulting)

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