What We Do

Advertising Billboard

Billboard2Large outdoor advertising structures typically found in high traffic areas such as alongside busy roads.  Billboards present large advertisements to passing pedestrians and drivers.  Typically showing large, ostensibly witty slogans, and distinctive visuals, billboards are highly visible in the top designated market areas.  Bulletins are the largest, most impactful standard-size billboards.  Located primarily on major highways, expressways or principal arterials, they command high-density consumer exposure (mostly to vehicular traffic).  Bulletins afford greatest visibility due not only to their size, but because they allow creative “customizing” through extensions and embellishments.  Posters are the other common form of billboard advertising, located chiefly in commercial and industrial areas on primary and secondary arterial roads.  Posters are a smaller format than bulletins and are viewed principally by residents and commuter traffic, with some pedestrian exposure.


Subdivision Analysis

A method of estimating land value when subdivision development is the highest and best use of the parcel of land being appraised.  When all direct and indirect costs, and entrepreneurial incentive are deducted from the estimate of the anticipated gross sales price of the finished lots, the resultant net sales proceeds are then discounted to present value at a market-derived rate over the development and absorption period to indicate the value of the raw land.

(Dictionary of Real Estate Appraisal, 4th edition.)

Service Stations/Carwashes

retail-building1A retail establishment at which motor vehicles are refueled, serviced, and sometimes repaired.  Also called filling station, gas station.  A business or branch of a business where services, especially repairs, can be obtained. A place or business equipped for washing cars and other motor vehicles.


Rental Surveys

Collection of primary information on other properties that sell or lease in the same market.  At a minimum, the characteristics or classification of each building, its rent levels, and tenant occupancy will be included.


Tax Appeal of Real Property

tax-copyReal property tax is a tax based on the value of the property.  Appraisals which are the basis for property values can generally be appealed according to local rules.  Some of the reasons for appealing a tax assessment include:


  • The assessor’s market value estimate is higher than the actual market value.
  • The primary assessment of the property is based on inaccurate information such as an incorrect measurement of a lot or building.
  • The assessment is higher than those of similar neighboring properties.
  • The assessed value is at a higher percentage of market value for your property than the prevailing township, or county median level, as shown in an assessment/sales ratio study.


Partnership Dissolution

The act or process of resolving or dissolving into parts or elements; the undoing or breaking of a bond, tie, union, partnership, etc.; the breaking up of an assembly or organization; dismissal; dispersal;  legal termination, especially of business activity, with the final distribution of assets, the fixing of liabilities, etc.


Apartment Building

multi-family-2-copyThe structure containing four or more dwelling units, with common areas and facilities, e.g. entrances, lobby, elevators or stairs, mechanical space, walks, grounds.

(Dictionary of Real Estate Appraisal, 4th edition.)

Different types of apartment buildings include:

  • Apartment complex
  • Apartment hotel
  • Cooperative apartment
  • Gallery apartment house
  • Garden apartments
  • High rise apartment building
  • Tenement

Mineral Rights

mineral-rights-3-copyThe right to take things beneath the soil.  One may sell land and mineral rights separately from each other, which works a severance of the interests.  In some states sand, gravel, and clay are not considered minerals, even if they exist below the surface.


Litigation Support

litigationAny professional assistance non-lawyers provide to lawyers in the litigation process.  Those involved in litigation support (such as forensic accountants) perform investigative accounting, auditing, and tax determinations, provide expert testimony, or produce financial valuations in dispute situations.


Land Analysis

landA careful study of factual data relating to the neighborhood characteristics that create, enhance, or detract from the utility or marketability of land or site as compared with competing, comparable land or sites.

(Dictionary of Real Estate Appraisal, 4th edition.)

Insurable Value

The value of an asset or asset group that is covered by an insurance policy; can be estimated by deducting costs of non-insurable items (e.g. land value) from the market value.

(Dictionary of Real Estate Appraisal, 4th edition.)

Industrial Property

industrialLand and/or improvements that can be adapted for industrial use; a combination of land, improvements, and machinery integrated into a functioning unit to assemble, process, and manufacture products from raw materials or fabricated parts; factories that render service, e.g. laundries, dry cleaners, storage warehouse, or those that produce natural resources, e.g. oil wells.

(Dictionary of Real Estate Appraisal, 4th edition.)


motel-2-copyA facility that offers lodging accommodations and a wide range of other services, e.g. restaurants, convention facilities, meeting rooms, recreation facilities, commercial shops.

(Dictionary of Real Estate Appraisal, 4th edition.)

Other types of lodging include:

  • All-suite Hotel
  • Budget Motel
  • Convention Hotel
  • Extended Stay Hotel
  • Full-service Hotel
  • Hostel
  • Luxury Hotel
  • Microtel
  • Mixed-use Hotel
  • Resort Hotel

Green Building

green-building-2-copy(Also known as green construction or sustainable building) refers to a structure and using process that is environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building’s life-cycle: from siting to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and demolition. This practice expands and complements the classical building design concerns of economy, utility, durability, and comfort.



Gift Tax

gift-tax-copyA graduated tax, imposed by the federal government and some states, on gifts of property during the donor’s lifetime; under the law, gifts may include irrevocable living trusts.

(Dictionary of Real Estate Appraisal, 4th edition.)

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